你不是缺用户,而是缺乏经营用户的能力

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指南

过去,大多数公司认为只要有消费者,就可以出售商品。众所周知,这种简单的销售思路无法吸引消费者。更重要的是,他们可能不是最终用户,对产品的反馈也会引起误解。企业应该如何将消费者转变为用户?

1980年可口可乐消费者和今天的淘宝用户有什么区别?

1980年,购买一瓶可口可乐后,大多数可口可乐消费者都不会与该品牌建立直接关系。他们与品牌建立关系的时间是他们再次购买可口可乐的时候。

今天的淘宝用户呢?他们在平台上购买产品后,会不时登录,看看系统是否推荐了他们可能感兴趣的产品。有时他们可以签署一些金币,有时观看短片,现场直播,也可能是关于财务管理,消费,能量收集等的Associated Alipay。他们与品牌的关系是持久和多维的。我把互联网时代之前的时代称为传统的消费时代,后来的时代被称为互联网消费时代。

从上面的例子可以看出,在可口可乐所在的传统消费时代,该品牌的主要目标是制造销售给消费者的产品。在淘宝所处的互联网消费时代,品牌的主要目标是运营用户并创造长期价值。

如今,传统品牌也步入了互联网时代。他们不会保持不变,他们也在努力跟上时代的步伐。

1

品牌的第一次转型

从以品牌为中心到以消费者为中心

传统消费时代,品牌是以自身为中心的,它们根据消费者的普遍需求制造标准化商品,售卖给消费者,以此创造品牌收益和价值。

互联网消费时代,品牌以消费者为中心,它们根据消费者喜好的多样性和复杂性,制造最适合某类甚至某个消费者的产品,以最大化自己的收益和价值。

因此,以消费者为中心的品牌价值才更有意义。

大卫奥格威有类似的言论,他说:“品牌是一种错综复杂的象征,它是品牌属性、名称、包装、价格、历史、声誉、广告方式的无形总和。

品牌同时也因消费者对其使用者的印象,以及自身的经验而有所界定。”后半句的意思是说品牌是消费者头脑中的印象,没有消费者,也就没有品牌。

Keller曾在《战略品牌管理》上提出基于顾客的品牌资产的概念,并认为它的组成部分有三个:1. 消费者对品牌的差异化效应;2. 消费者的品牌知识;3. 消费者对营销的反应。

我认为,如今品牌价值衡量标准已经从品牌资产转化为消费者资产。

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消费者资产的计算公式是这样的:

消费者资产=消费者消费*消费者忠诚度(本商品在同类商品中的购买率)+社交推荐收入

这其中消费者忠诚度很重要,凯勒举过一个例子:一名通用汽车的忠实顾客在他的一生中能为公司创造276000美元的财富,包括至少直接购买11辆汽车,并间接将通用汽车产品推荐给亲朋好友。这为顾客创造的276000美元的价值,就是品牌的消费者资产。

xxxxThe shift from a brand-centric asset to a consumer-centric consumer asset is the first transformation of the brand in the Internet age.

Coca-Cola has launched a nickname bottle. The move is completely consumer-centric. It is a product that is tailored to each other's characteristics. This move has allowed Coca-Cola to increase its revenue. Through this product change, consumers' awareness of Coca-Cola has increased significantly, and consumer assets have risen.

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2

The second transformation of the brand

From consumer to user

Going back to the example at the beginning of the article, what is the difference between a 1980 Coca-Cola consumer and a Taobao user today? Summarize it.

Consumers: More emphasis on consumption, how much money a consumer spends on the brand, how much revenue the brand has.

User: More emphasis on use, as long as a user uses a certain product (Internet products) for a long time, then his contribution must be long-term and sustainable, and this income must be greater than his single consumption.

Consumers and brands are single-time consumer relationships, and long-term operational relationships between users and brands. In the era of Internet consumption, the value of a brand's assets depends more on the value of the user's assets. The more a brand user, the higher the loyalty and the more active, the higher the value he contributes to the brand.

Lei Jun used the concept of user assets to value Xiaomi. The story is as follows:

Chen Xiao, the former chairman of Gome Electrical Appliances, once visited Lei Jun. Lei Jun gave him the valuation of Xiaomi. "Xiami has 70 million users, and each user's value is 380 US dollars. In this way, Xiaomi's market value is 30 billion US dollars."

xx陈晓当时很震惊。他回来后告诉人们,在过去的几年里,制造业从未听说过这种估价方法。这是互联网思维和互联网定价的新标准,也是互联网对企业价值的判断。

如果计算传统的市盈率,那时的小米仍然没有盈利,公司的价值根本无法计算。

对于像JD.com这样的互联网平台,活跃用户是判断其未来发展方向的重要指标。去年,京东第三季度的活跃用户在上市后第一季度出现下滑,减少了860万。这引起了很多恐慌,因为在某种程度上,C侧的活跃用户是决定其平台GMV的重要因素。

一个电子商务平台,越来越活跃的用户,越来越多的消费,将形成一个积极的周期,否则平台将逐渐衰落。因此,在互联网消费时代,用户资产对品牌至关重要,公司的目标是将消费者转变为用户。

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3

品牌将消费者转变为用户案例

1. Apple:从硬件制造商到服务提供商

传统上,Apple是一家制造商,生产销售给消费者的软件和硬件集成电脑,MP3和手机。它与消费者的联系仅限于销售时的连接,直至售后服务。如果这种商业模式继续下去,那么今天苹果的市值不会高于联想。

随着互联网时代的到来,乔布斯带领苹果公司实现了两次转型。它首次从PC制造商转变为产品加服务提供商,代表iPod +音乐服务。此时,消费者不仅购买iPod播放器,还购买音乐服务。音乐服务的不断更新使消费者不断与品牌建立关系。

苹果推出iPhone的第二次改造,iPhone不仅仅是一部手机,更重要的是APP Store,iCloud等服务,它形成了硬件+服务的生态系统,这种生态与用户的长期联系,服务用户,促进用户实现,贡献自己的终身价值。

我曾经有一个朋友从iPhone 4切换到iPhone X.当被问及为什么不换其他品牌的手机时,他说他被iPhone绑架,他的账号,照片等都在顶部,改变手机的转换成本。非常高,这次绑架实际上正在进行中。

2.耐克:从运动器材到解决方案

拥有数十年历史的耐克公司是一家设计,制造和销售运动器材的体育用品公司。多年来,耐克通过销售产品和持续的活动活动与消费者建立了联系,使消费者成为一种品牌精神。支持者和爱好者,因此一些用户对品牌有更高的忠诚度。

但并非所有消费者都被视为耐克的粉丝,忠诚度很高,而且一些消费者只是将耐克作为体育产品的选择之一。今天,耐克也在积极转型。

早在2006年,Apple和Nike就联手推出了一款名为Nike + iPod的运动套件,用于追踪用户的日期,时间,距离和卡路里价值。

乔布斯在一份声明中表示:“我们正在与耐克合作,将音乐和体育带到一个新的水平。耐克+ iPod运动套件就像是用户的私人教练。”

Now Nike and Apple Watch have made significant progress compared to the first generation of Nike + iPod. Apple Watch Nike+ can guide users through multiple actions. Heart rate and calories can be tracked during training, and statistics and transcripts can be viewed after training. It is more instructive than a personal trainer.

Nike's Run Club and Training Club applications, combined with their own sports equipment, give users a more professional and integrated sports instruction and experience. For Nike, it is not a pure sports equipment consumer brand. Like a company that provides motion solutions for its users.

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3. Tesla: From durable consumer goods to smart services

Most of the traditional car companies are not directly facing the consumer brand (the D2C brand), their business model is to produce and manufacture cars, wholesale them to dealers, and sell them to consumers. Car companies actually do B2B business, consumers generally do not have any connection with the brand after buying a car.

Tesla emerged from the Internet era. First, Tesla's business model is different from the traditional car company's B2B model. It adopts the e-commerce + direct store model and directly establishes contact and communication with consumers, which makes it and consumers. The connection is direct and close.

Secondly, Tesla is a product of software and hardware. Consumers are not connected with the brand after buying a car. The software is constantly upgraded and interacted, making the communication and connection between consumers and brands more frequent.

For Tesla, the person who buys the product is a long-term user, not a consumer who buys and sells a hammer. Today, GM's market capitalization is higher than Tesla, but in the past few years, Tesla's market value has exceeded GM many times, knowing that Tesla sells less than 10% of the vehicles per year, which is quite a problem.

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4

如何将消费者转变为用户?

在上述情况下购买产品的人不是传统意义上的消费者,而是能够长期与品牌建立关系并贡献终身价值的用户。

将消费者变为用户并非易事。这涉及企业战略方面的转变,以及企业营销和运营战略的变化。以下是一些建议。

1.改变商品销售,不断提供长期价值和服务

从以上三种情况可以看出,公司将消费者转变为用户的主要策略是产品和服务的变化。

有必要将制造和销售商品的模式本身转变为商品+服务+软件+解决方案(后三者中至少一种)的模式,只有服务,软件和解决方案的非纯产品才是易于实现和用户。再次连接。

当消费者使用产品+服务+软件+解决方案时,他们也将直接与企业互动,而积累的数据将成为用户长期运营的重要资源。

淘宝,亚马逊等电子商务平台使用与用户互动形成的大数据来指导准确的产品推荐,引导客户的营销策略。这些数据已成为其业务模式的重要组成部分。

2.更换锤子以买卖终身操作

消费者和品牌成为用户的一个重要衡量标准是消费者和品牌之间的关系。如今,用户和品牌在产品生命周期中是永久的关系。

For Didi, every user has a lifetime operational value, because taxiing is a thing that users will do for life. How to develop new users, improve the activity and usage of existing users, recall the users who leave, and continue to serve are all things that create long-term value for the company. Compared to traditional taxi companies, Drip has the advantage of crushing in this respect.

In the automotive sector, some manufacturers are also striving to make transformations in this area, such as Geely's launch of the Cao Cao car, which is intended to form a model for car sales + travel service providers. GM's plans to develop autonomous vehicles and provide online car services also reflect its efforts to transform itself from a simple manufacturer to a travel company.

However, for automakers, their long-term goal is to build a long-term user value system and operating system within the user's product lifecycle (at least 5 years) to create value for users in the long run, while also allowing users to create value for the business.

3. Enhance user brand loyalty

Even in the Internet age, the promotion of loyalty is constant. Strategies include: being open to users rather than being closed; making good use of crowdsourcing to allow users to participate in brand building and foster user fan economy.

In addition, it is more important to provide users with meaningful products and services through the operation of users, which is also an important strategy to enhance user loyalty.

4. Build a private domain traffic platform connected to the user

The concept of private domain traffic has become a more popular concept this year. The concept of private domain traffic is listening to Xuan, which is actually the brand's own controllable platform. Any user enterprise should establish its own private domain traffic platform as the enterprise's user operation strategy.

These platforms include their own apps, communities, official blogs, public accounts, etc. Through a controlled private domain traffic platform, brands can use users to form long-term interactions, effectively operate users, and provide valuable services to users.

xx私有域流量平台的目的是使非用户的消费者成为用户,使已成为用户的消费者更加活跃,并对该品牌形成更高的忠诚度。

5.用户和企业集成

每个消费一个品牌产品的用户都应该是公司价值的贡献者,因为他们是公司的父母。

如果用户可以分享品牌增长带来的好处,那么用户和品牌就会成为一个利益共同体。他们不仅消耗自己,而且还吸引更多的人消费,从而推高公司的收入,赚取更高的收入。

这种例子并非没有。没有提到离开Weilai产品的问题。魏来的创始人魏斌去年捐赠了1/3的股份,以建立用户信托基金。目标是让用户为公司贡献价值并与公司共同成长。让用户分享业务增长带来的好处。

威莱一直声称致力于成为世界上第一家“用户公司”。其实质是通过用户的运作来建立用户经济,让用户与公司共同成长,这是其商业模式与传统汽车公司精髓的区别。

在互联网时代,一切都是连通的,公司需要通过“网络”连接和运营用户。对于传统的消费品牌,我们应该学习互联网品牌的商业策略。将消费企业转变为面向用户的企业,让自己的消费者成为用户,无需用户创造长期价值,与企业共同成长。

传统公司需要进行战略转型从产品到产品+服务的转型,以及营销方法从广告到运营。这是企业在互联网时代的唯一使命。

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